Ham, C.D., Lee, J., Hayes, J.L., & Bae, Y.H. (2018). Exploring Sharing Behaviors across Social Media Platforms. International Journal of Market Research.


ABSTRACT: Increasingly, consumers are simulcasting branded content across multiple, interconnected social media platforms creating a complex social media ecosystem. However, little is known about what motivates sharing in the ecosystem as opposed to specific media contexts. Present research explores multiplatform consumers’ general sharing motivations and examines how those motivations, in conjunction with social relationships, influence sharing behavior across social media platforms. First, four focus group interviews were conducted to identify general social media sharing motivations of multiplatform consumers. Employing an online survey (N = 249), four dimensions comprised of 31 sharing motivation items were identified: social presence, social conversation, easy connection, and self-management. Applying a theory of reasoned action and social exchange theory approach, we conducted a second online survey (N = 342) to elaborate on our findings in terms of multidimensionality and interdependency among the influencing factors on social sharing behavior. Social conversation exhibited the strongest relationship with attitude toward sharing, whereas self-management was negatively related to the social norm, which, in turn, was negatively associated with sharing intention. Findings and implications are discussed.


Hayes, J.L., Shan, Y., & King, K.W. (2018). The Interconnected Role of Strength of Brand and Interpersonal Relationships and User Comment Valence on Brand Video Sharing Behaviour. International Journal of Advertising, 37 (1), 142-164.


ABSTRACT: This study addresses gaps in our understanding of viral advertising by examining the following questions: (1) how do brand relationships, interpersonal relationships, and user comment valence influence decisions to accept referrals of and re-share online video ads, and (2) how do the roles of each intertwine to influence those decisions. A national sample (N = 405) of 18- to 34-year-old Facebook users participated in a 2 (stronger/weaker brand relationship strength) × 2 (stronger/weaker interpersonal relationship strength) × 2 (positive/negative user comments) experiment. The results show that interpersonal relationships, brand relationships, and valence of user comments play different, but intertwining roles in social networking site users’ acceptance of viral video ads and decisions to re-share. Interpersonal relationships most strongly influenced ad referral acceptance while brand relationships and comment valence drove re-sharing. A three-way interaction, however, revealed that positive user comments greatly strengthen the brand’s impact on referral acceptance; negative comments strongly negate brand influence.


Hayes, J.L., Graybeal, G.M., & Friedman, A. (2017). Resurrecting zombie brands: Lessons from analyses of “The Walking Dead” social TV conversation. Proceedings of the 2017 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, 86-94.


ABSTRACT: Social television (or “social TV”) is a recent term that has been used to describe the intersection of watching television and communicating and interacting online with social media. Brands and programmers alike have turned to social TV particularly on Twitter to have viewers become social ambassadors using their online social networks to amplify content and messaging, acquire and retain customers, and build brand affinity. In order to begin theorizing social TV, this exploratory study employs social network analysis and content analysis to analyze social TV chatter surrounding “The Walking Dead” providing a snapshot of who/what participants are involved in social TV conversations, how participants interact, and to what end. Results indicate that, while viewers seek to interject media brands, celebrities, and brands into conversation, these commercial entities are not engaging in the conversation nor are they facilitating conversation structure integral to vibrant sharing communities. Implications are discussed.


Hayes, J.L., King, K.W., & Ramirez, A. (2016) Brands, Friends, & Viral Advertising: A Social Exchange Perspective on the Ad Referral Process. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 36 (November), 31-45.


ABSTRACT: Advertisers worldwide are designing advertising with an eye toward viral activity particularly within social networking sites such Facebook. Yet, little is known about the social processes at play when ads are shared. Taking a consumer-centric approach, this study investigates the social 11 processes central to ads going viral within the Social Web. Conducting a national online experiment, the intertwining roles of brand relationships, interpersonal relationships, and sharing motivations in the social exchange of advertising are explored by testing two proposed referral decision-making processes: referral and referral acceptance. Results suggest that brand relationships and interpersonal relationships impact referral of ads within SNSs and brand relationships interact with sharing motivations to impact decisions; specifically, brand relationships are conduits for ensuring reciprocal altruism in exchange, but their influence is tempered within stronger interpersonal relationships. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.


Hayes, J.L. (2016). Building Relationships with Empowered Consumers. In R.E. Brown, V.K. Jones, & B.W. Wang (Eds.), The New Advertising: Branding, Content and Consumer Relationships in a Data-Driven, Social Media Era.


ABSTRACT: The goal of this chapter is to delineate a conceptual approach to building healthy consumer-brand relationships within the Social Web. Since social media value creation is driven by content being shared by people, doing so requires a return to the basics of interpersonal relationships, consumer-brand relationships, and the brand-related content that is shared between and within them to create value for consumers. At their core, consumer-brand relationships are derived from customer brand satisfaction which when repeated develops into trust which, in turn, leads to a committed brand relationship. Like all media, social media are simply tools for communicating a brand message with particular strengths based upon how consumers use them. The primary purpose of social media for consumers is to build and maintain interpersonal relationships through sharing of thoughts and content. In order to build strong brand relationships with social consumers then, brands must facilitate satisfactory brand interactions by consistently communicating with consumers and creating content with social value. In doing so, the brand can build trust and co-create value within online social networks.


Hayes, J.L., & King, K.W. (2014) The Social Exchange of Viral Ads: Referral and Co-Referral of Ads Among College Students. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 14(2), 98-109.


ABSTRACT: Taking a consumer centric approach, this study investigates the social processes central to ads going viral. Specifically, insights into the intertwining roles of brand relationships and sharing motivations in the social exchange of advertising are explored. Two distinct referral decision-making processes were proposed and tested: referral and co-referral.  Results offer evidence that brand relationships interact with sharing motivations to impact ad referral decision processes within social networking sites. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.


Graybeal, G.M. & Hayes, J.L. (2011). All the news that’s fit to pay for online: The Case of a Modified News Micropayment Model. Presented at the 11th annual International Symposium on Online Journalism in Austin, Texas [PDF]


ABSTRACT:  This theoretical paper explores the idea of small, per-article payments, which can be as low as a penny or less, for the news industry.  The paper examines existing academic and industry literature on micropayments, as well as explores underlying theories in media management and economics, marketing, behavioral economics, sociology, computer information systems and mass communication.  The authors propose a “Modified News Micropayment Model” that contains four primary drivers that make the idea of micropayments a feasible and attractive idea for news industries in the Social Web environment— socialization/sharing, a microearn component, local focus and a centralized banking system.  The model is presented and discussed, and future directions for research offered.


Hayes, J.L. & Graybeal, G.M. (2011). Synergizing Traditional Media and the  Social Web for Monetization: A Modified Media Micropayment Model.  Journal of Media Business Studies.


ABSTRACT: In today’s Social Web environment, traditional media struggles to capture the monetary potential of media products online.  The authors argue a synergetic business model can maximize strengths and alleviate weaknesses of traditional media and the Social Web.  This paper surveys extant literature on business models for social networking sites, explains how those models correlate to legacy media, examines existing academic and industry research and thinking on the issue, and discusses practical and theoretical future directions for models in this realm.  In conclusion, a new business model is proposed that converges SNS and legacy media as the primary players in the envisioned model.PDF



Wirtz, J., Hayes, J.L., & Shan Y. (2017). Looking back; looking forward: A systematic review of 20 years of research and commentary published by Journal of Advertising Education. Journal of Advertising Education


Avant, A., Kim, K., & Hayes, J.L. (2017). Thirty Years of Advertising Research in Leading Communication and Marketing Journals: Learning from the Parent Disciplines. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 38 (1), 44-64:


ABSTRACT: Academic advertising research has been criticized for a lack of progression and change. The criticism has revolved around the fact that advertising research has heavily relied on theories and methodologies from its parent disciplines such as psychology, communication, and marketing. To identify potential venues for progression and provide a complete understanding of academic advertising research, a longitudinal content analysis was conducted with scholarly advertising articles from twelve major communication and marketing journals from 1980 to 2010. This analysis seeks to suggest possible routes to moving advertising research forward by juxtaposing its research approach to that of broader marketing and communications journal research.


Kim, K., Hayes, J.L., Avant, A., & Reid, L.N. (2014). Trends in Advertising Research: A Longitudinal Analysis of Leading Advertising, Marketing, and Communication Journals, 1980 to 2010. Journal of Advertising, 43(3), 296-316.


ABSTRACT: This study provides a longitudinal content analysis of advertising research articles in 17 top-tier advertising, marketing, and communication journals published over the past 30 years (1980-2010, n=926). The study’s purpose is to shed light on the direction and progression of advertising as an academic field by updating and extending Yale and Gilly’s (1988) study of advertising research trends. Nine content characteristics of the journal articles were examined: (1) theory presence (theory-driven vs. not theory-driven), (2) names, types (theory vs. theoretical framework/model vs. construct), and originating disciplines of theory, (3) topic areas, (4) media of interest, (5) research approaches (empirical vs. non-empirical and quantitative vs. qualitative vs. mixed), (6) methods, (7) types of effects, (8) units of analysis, and (9) research implications. Changes in the content characteristics of journal articles were found across the 30 years analyzed in five-year intervals. Implications for the field, scholars, and advertising practitioners are discussed.



Hayes, J.L., & Krugman, D. (2018, in press). Brand Concepts and Advertising. In S. Rodgers & E. Thorson (Eds.), Advertising Theory. New York: Routledge.

Krugman, D.M. & Hayes, J.L. (2012). Brand concepts and advertising. In Shelly Rodgers & Esther Thorson (Eds.) Advertising Theory. Boston, MA: Routledge.



Hayes, J.L., Reichert, T., & Ayrault, J. (2010). Reconsidering the Presence and Prominence of Sexual Content in Prime-Time Network Promos: An Extension and Update. Presented at the annual conference of the Broadcast Educators Association, Las Vegas, NV. [PDF]


ABSTRACT:  A content analysis of prime-time on-air network promos aired on broadcast network television in 2007 revealed that 21.7% contained sexual content. However, only 7.6% of promos featured sexual content as a primary theme, and most sexual content was mild (e.g., flirtation and/or  innuendo). Among networks, 48.9% of CW promos contained sexual content, more than double the next closest network (ABC, 22%). Promos with sexual content appeared most frequently for drama (45%) and reality (31%) programming, and—most alarmingly—during the so-called “family hour” (8-9 PM). Detailed findings and their implications are discussed.


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